By: Trends Editorial Team
Laws and Regulations
Labor relations are regulated mainly by the Labor Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan, by laws stipulating general procedures, and by employers’ collective agreements.
The legislation is similarly applicable to all employers and employees operating/working in Uzbek territory. Foreign nationals employed in Uzbekistan thus have the same rights and obligations as Uzbek nationals.
The state authority regulating the labor sector is the Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations (MELF). The Federation of Labor Unions of Uzbekistan exercises supervision and control over compliance with labor legislation at a more local level.
The Uzbek labor system is relatively socially-oriented: Employees are provided with a substantive range of rights and protections. The employment age is 16 (conditional), with full labor capacity being reached at the age of 18. Labor contracts can be open-ended or limited in duration (up to 5 years) or to a particular task.
Working hours and leave
- The number of full-time working hours per week is 40.
- Employees have a right to free time during the workday (usually an hour for lunch).
- Employment parties may choose to have a five or six-day working week, with the common day being Sunday.
- Employees annually have 15 days of paid leave.
All employees are subject to state social insurance, funded via the social tax paid by employers. The insured employees (and family members) have a right to receive temporary disability, retirement, survivor, maternity, and childbirth benefits.
The labor contract may stipulate a probation period of no longer than three months. The probation period cannot be applied to pregnant women, mothers with children under three years old, or graduates job-seeking within three years of finishing their studies.
Labor contract termination and notification requirements
According to Uzbek labor legislation, labor contracts may be terminated on the following bases:
- Agreement of both parties
- Expiration of the term of the labor contract
- Grounds envisaged in the labor contract • Events beyond the parties’ control.
An employee may terminate the labor contract on their own initiative at any time, by providing two-weeks’ notice to the employer.
The labor contract may be terminated at the employer’s initiative only in the following cases:
- Decreasing demand for human resources due to operational changes or liquidation of the entity
- Employee unsuitability for the position
- Systematic disciplinary violations in the workplace or a one-time gross violation
- Replacement of a part-time employee with a full-time employee
- Termination of top managers’ labor contracts upon entity ownership changes
- Employees’ reaching the retirement age
When initiated by the employer, the labor contract termination notice period ranges from three days (for violations) to two months (for change in ownership or liquidation).
Representative bodies such as labor unions protect and negotiate employees’ rights and interests. Employees may also elect a special body (committee) within their organization to represent and protect labor rights and interests. The employment of foreign citizens in Uzbekistan requires both an employment visa and a work permit.
Also Read: Progress of Reform